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First Scries 

J.\!'.\M'>I-. I-'AIKV TALES 
S icond 

Do not to others what would 
be disagreeable to yourself. 
Hindu Proverb 

found t!:< i 



Retold by 


Author of "Japanese Fairy Tales " 

Illustrated by 





Bditii m "i 

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.. ' 

. >CA* 

n U.S. \. 




A List of the Full-Page Illustrations 8 

A Foreword . 








A Pronouncing and Defining Vocabulary .... 72 

Suggestions to Teachers 74 

Suggested Readings . . . . . . . . . . 84 



They lost their way in a wood, where a Brahman found tin m 


The great King from a distant city chanced to be riding that way 12 
The Prince called the Yogi into the palace 21 

All the people ran along to see on whom the King's elephant would 

spill the water 40 

They set off together to see the world 52 

"O Prince, do not try to enter those gates" <;r, 


' 1 


Tvrd; yz-' ^r 


AFTER the day's work in the fields, with no 
light save that of the moon and the stars, the 
men, women, and children of the little Hindu 
villages gather for their only recreation listening to 
the tales of the village story-teller. Where did this 
man learn his stories? From some earlier story-teller 
to whom, as a child, he had listened. Thus from gen- 
eration to generation, wholly by word of mouth, have 
these stories been passed down, the unwritten literature 
of a simple, story-loving people. 

The tales contained in this volume were selected from 
a large number collected from various sources, and were 
chosen because they were the favorites of the four little 
listeners, my self-appointed critics, with whom I shared 



It is not good to forget a benefit 

Let no man think lightly of good 
Hindu Proverb 

The great King from a distant city clidiical to he riding that ;<v/v r 


IN a city in India lived a little girl who had no 
name. Her mother died when she was just 
a baby, before there was time for her to be 
named, and her father well, when he wanted 
to speak to her he just shouted, 'You, there," 
and she always obeyed him, so that seemed to 
be name enough. 

As she grew older he found plenty for her to 
do. Early in the morning she had to get up to 
milk the cow, clean and polish everything in the 
house, and prepare breakfast for her father. If 
there were more than he wished to eat, little 




You There could have what was left. After 
that she had to take the cows of the village out 
to pasture and watch to keep them from wan- 
dering away. When the sun was straight above 
her she returned to her home and prepared dinner 
for her father, then went again to the fields to 
care for the cows. At sunset the tired girl re- 
turned with the cows to finish her work at home. 
Finally she became so worn out with all this 
work that she asked her father to bring home a 
wife to do the work of the house. The father 
brought home a new wife, just as she asked, but, 
dear me! what a poor sort of a wife she was! 
She was big and fat and lazy. She ate enough 
for three people, and would n't even drive the 
flies off her own food, much less prepare the meals 
for other people. So poor little You There had 
twice as much work to do as before. 


It was very hot out in the fields, too, for there 
were no trees near this village, not even a bush, 
nothing but the long grass. In fact, the people 
of that village hardly knew what a tree looked 
like, for only the men who had traveled far away 
to other towns had ever seen one. The poor 
little girl had to stay out in the hot sun all day, 
watching the cows, with nothing at all to shade 
her. No wonder that she grew very tired and 
sometimes fell fast asleep. 

One day she fell asleep and dreamed such a 
pleasant dream. She was sitting in a beautiful 
garden full of tall, feathery palms and spreading 
mango trees, and with a lovely fountain splash- 
ing its cool waters in the center. But something 
writhing and squirming in her lap awakened her. 
It was a huge spotted snake. Ugh! How it 
wriggled and slipped! 

She was just about to scream and run away, 
when she saw that the snake was in trouble, and 
she was sorry for even a snake who needed help. 
So she asked gently, "What do you want, poor 
snake? Can I help you?" 

"Yes," said the snake, "the hunters are after 
me and will kill me. Will you let me coil myself 
about your feet so that your skirt will hide me 
until they have gone away?" 

Now this little girl did n't like cold, crawling, 
slimy things coiling about her feet any better 
than you or I would, but she was very kind- 
hearted and did not want to see even a horrid 
spotted snake killed, so she said, "Well, coil 
around quickly, and please, oh, please lie very 
still and don't squirm one bit, and I'll promise 
to hide you until they are gone." 

The snake had no sooner hidden than the 
hunters came. "Have you seen a big spotted 
snake going this way?" they asked. 

'I was asleep," said the little girl. "The sun 
was hot, and I was tired. I just woke up, but 
I don't see any snake here now." So the hunters 
went on, thinking the snake was ahead of them. 




After they were gone the snake came out 
and said, "Little girl, I want to make you a gift 
as a reward for saving my life. Ask the finest 
thing you can think of, for I can give you 

'There are just two things I should like to 
have," said the girl. "One is a name, something 
besides You There, which I don't like at all; the 
other is a beautiful garden, full of tall palm and 
mango trees, with a lovely fountain splashing its 
cool waters in the center. I really think I'd 
rather have the garden, for this sun is so very 

"All right," said the snake. "A garden you 
shall have, a wonderful Garden of Dreams, the 
most beautiful one possible. You shall have the 
name, too, but that will come later. Just close 
your eyes one moment." 

She closed her eyes, and what the snake did 
then I '11 never tell you, but when he said, "Open," 
she opened her eyes to see the garden of her dreams. 

How cool and pleasant it was in the shade of 
the tall palm tree, with a fountain, tinkling like 
a silver bell, in the center of the garden ! 

Just then she noticed the cows were straying 
away, so she hopped up and ran after them. 
Then what do you think became of the garden? 
Why, it hopped up and ran along, too. Really, 
it did -that beautiful garden full of tall palm and 
mango trees, with the lovely fountain splashing 
its cool waters in the center. The tallest palm 
tree ran right along beside the little girl. Its 
cool shade covered her every movement, and when 
she was ready to sit down, there was her beautiful 
garden with her, and she could rest in its shade. 

When the sun had set and she drove the cows 
home to the village her garden went with her, 
and waited all night just outside her door, and 
the fountain tinkled her a song \vhile she slept. 

One day, as she was sleeping under her palm 
tree, the great King from a distant city chanced 
to be riding that way. He was tired, and he was 
hot, and he was thirsty, and when he saw the cool 
shade of the trees and heard the tinkle of falling 
water he cried to his men, "See, here is a garden, 
as lovely as one in a dream, and the only one in 
all this treeless land. Dismount, tie your ele- 
phants and camels, and rest while I sleep in the 
shade of this mango tree." 

The King slept, and he awoke to find his 
mango tree running away and pushing him along 



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as it ran. The palm tree ran, the mango tree 
ran, the fountain ran; the elephants bellowed and 
the camels grunted, but they ran also, all after 
one stray cow. When the little girl, under the 
tallest palm tree, had driven the cow back to the 
other cows, she sat down and the beautiful garden 
settled into quiet again. 

Then the great King spoke to the little girl, 
and will you believe it, he called her by a beautiful 
new name Aramacobha, which means "Wonder- 
ful Garden of Dreams" -so at last she had a 
name, just as the snake had said. The King 
asked her about her wonderful garden, and she 
told him all about the 1 snake and how he came 
to give the garden to her. 


The more the King saw of the garden the 
better and better he liked it, and he wanted it 
and the little girl for his own. So he asked her to 
come to his palace with him and be his Queen, 
and share her wonderful Garden of Dreams with 
him always. 

When they reached the palace of the great 
King the garden sat down outside the door of 
the palace, just under the windows of the new 
Queen Aramacobha, and the little fountain 
tinkled her a song all through the day and 
all through the night. 




IN India there once lived a sister and seven 
brothers. The brothers were all married, 
and their wives were older and stronger than 
the sister, but nevertheless this one poor little 
girl had all the cooking, cleaning, and serving to 
do for all seven brothers and all their seven wives 
as well. 

Even this would not have been so hard to 
endure if they had been kind to her. But her 


brothers cared nothing for her, for she was only 
a girl; and her brothers' wives hated her all 
the more, because she worked so hard for them 
and yet never complained. 

" Why cannot the stupid thing say something, 
at least, w r hen I slap her?" cried the oldest wife. 

'Isn't it vexing," sighed the second wife, 
"to have to endure such patience? I am fairly 
sick from it." 

Then the third wife, the big, fat one, burst into 
tears, and sobbed, "You don't know what I suffer 
at her hands! Why, just this morning, when I 
pinched her for letting my rice get cold, all she 
could do was to smile and say, 'I am so sorry.' 
Why, you have no idea how nervous I am getting 
from such things." 

So one and all decided that they really could 
not stand her any more, and would have to find 
some way to get rid of her before they all became 
ill because of her and her ways. 

"Could n't we push her into the well?" asked 
wife number four. 

'Better put a cobra into her bed, to bite her," 
said the fifth wife. 

"No, that wouldn't do, for it might bite 
us," said number six. 

Then little number seven, with the big, big 

eyes, squealed, "Oh, I know! I know what to do! 
We must set the Bonga on her." 

"Oh, yes, the Bonga!" they all cried. 

Then some one said, "Ssh! Ssh!" and all 
else was spoken in whispers. 

That noon when the little sister went to the 
well to draw water it dried up before her eyes. 
"Oh, what evil thing have I done, that the water 
should dry up before my eyes?" she cried. 

No sooner had she said this than the water 
slowly began to rise again. When it had risen 
to her ankles she tried to fill her pitcher, but it 
would not go under the water. 


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The Prince called the 





Then she cried to her brothers, "Oh, my 
brothers, the water rises to my ankles; still, my 
brothers, the pitcher will not fill!" 

The water continued to rise until it was even 
with her knees, when she began to wail again, 
"Oh, my brothers, the water rises to my knees; 
still, my brothers, the pitcher will not fill!" 

The water continued to rise, and when it 
reached her neck she cried, "Oh, my brothers, 
the water rises to my neck; still, my brothers, the 
pitcher will not fill!" 

The water kept on rising and rising and rising, 
until it was over her head, and then she called 
again, "Oh, my brothers, the water measures a 
man's height; now, my brothers, the pitcher 
begins to fill." 

The pitcher filled with water and sank, and 
with it sank the little sister, and was drowned. 
Then the Bonga changed her into a Bonga like 
himself, and carried her off. 

A tall bamboo growing near a spring now 
became her home. The bamboo grew and grew, 
until it was much larger than any of the others 
around the spring. A Yogi saw it, and said to 
himself, "I'll cut down that huge bamboo and 
make a fine fiddle of it." 

So he started to cut it with his ax, close to the 

root, but the bamboo called out, 'Don't cut 
me at the root! Cut higher up!" 

He started to cut the bamboo near the top, 
but the top cried out, "Don't cut me near the 
top! Cut lower down!" 

Again he tried to cut near the root, but the 
root cried out, "Don't cut me near the root! 
Cut higher!" 

At that the Yogi became angry and cut the 
tree down near the root and made a fine fiddle 
out of it. It was a wonderful fiddle, and when 
any one played on it all who heard the music 
said, 'That sounds just like a girl singing!" and 
all who heard it longed to hear it again. 

The Yogi went from village to village playing, 
and everywhere people came in crowds to hear 


the wonderful fiddle that sounded just like a 
girl singing. They came to hear it once, and they 
came to hear it twice, gladly paying any price 
the fiddler asked, for the music was sweet to 
their ears. 

At last the Yogi became very rich, and very 
vain, for he thought the people gave so much 
money to hear his playing instead of the singing 
voice. In fact, it made him angry to see how 
much the people loved the wonderful fiddle, and 
he became most unkind to it, though it, alone, 
had made his fortune. 

One evening he was playing before the palace 
of a Prince. The music became sadder and more 
beautiful than usual, and the singing voice in the 
fiddle seemed to say, "O Prince, save me from 
this unkind Yogi!" 

Of course no one but the Prince heard and 
understood the words, but 
he at once knew that the 
fiddle must be a magic one/ 
so he called the Yogi into 
the palace. 

"What makes this won- 
derful music, friend Yogi?" 
asked the Prince. "Is it the cunning of your 
hand, or is there some magic in the fiddle? 


The Yogi bowed very low, and answered, 'I 
hate to admit it, dear Prince, but I must say that 
the wonderful music is all in my hand. This 
fiddle is really a very poor affair, and it takes great 
skill to make any music sound sweet upon it." 

"You are very sure of that?" asked the Prince. 

"Most noble Prince, take from me all that I 
own if I am not telling you the truth. Really, 
the fiddle is scarcely worth carrying about at all, 
but I've nothing better." 

"Then, my most wonderful Yogi, let me 
present you with my finest fiddle. What music 
we shall now hear! But just leave the old fiddle 
here with me, since it is so poor a one." 

"O best of Princes, how kind you are! But I 
really could n't part with that old fiddle, even if 
it is so worthless, I have carried it so long and am 
so used to it. I '11 take both." 

Just then the Prince heard, very plainly, a 
soft, sweet song coming from the fiddle. No one 
was touching the strings, but the song was sweet- 
ness itself, and seemed to say, "Oh, save me, 
save me, kind Prince!" 

So he said to the Yogi, "If the music is really 
in your hand, as you say it is, then you are better 
off with the fine new fiddle I have given you. If, 
as I believe, you are lying to me, and the music 



is really in this magic fiddle which you so despise, 
then I have the right to take anything of yours 
that I wish, for you just said that I might if you 
lied to me. Whatever you do, and wherever you 
go, this old fiddle will stay here with me." 

The Yogi turned and ran away as fast as he 
could, taking, of course, the new fiddle, but he 
never again earned any money by playing, for 
now no one cared to hear him. 

The Prince took the magic fiddle to his own 
chamber and stood it in a safe place. In the 
morning, when he awakened, he found a bowl of 
steaming rice beside his bed. It was really the 
best rice he ever had tasted, but he wondered how 



it came there. That evening, when he returned, 
there sat another bowl of rice, and also a large 
dish of sweetmeats. "Some one certainly is my 
friend," he thought, "but who can it be?" 

In the morning, when he found his breakfast 
all ready for him and steaming hot, he determined 
to watch and see who was so kind to him. He 
watched and listened all day, but nothing hap- 
pened until the sun was beginning to sink. Then 
he heard a soft rustling near him. The top of 
the fiddle lifted, and out slipped a beautiful girl. 
She quickly cooked rice and prepared sweetmeats, 



set them under the head of his bed, and was just 
slipping back into the fiddle again when he sprang 
out and caught her. 

"Now you won't have to live in that fiddle 
any longer and be a Bonga. You shall be my 
Princess," he said. 

Then how glad she was! 'T was worth being 
drowned and then living in a bamboo and finally 
in a fiddle, to have, at last, so kind a husband and 
so beautiful a home. 





OOD morning, Mr. Tiger," said the little, 
wee boy very politely. Then he went 
on playing a pretty little song on his 
reed pipe. 

"Good morning," growled the big Tiger, much 
surprised, for really he was just about to swallow 
the little, wee boy. "You are a very polite little 
boy, I see, so I'll give you a choice. Would you 
rather I'd eat you or all your sheep?' 

"Would you mind if I ask my auntie? She 
takes care of me, and these are her sheep. I 
watch them every day, and I think I ought to do 
just as she wishes me to, don't you?" asked the 
little, wee boy very politely. Then he went on 
playing the pretty little song on his reed pipe. 

"You are a very polite little boy, I see, so I'll 
wait till you ask your auntie. Does she live far 
away?" growled the Tiger, looking rather hungry. 

"Oh, yes, she lives far away in the village, and 



I must not drive the sheep home until sunset; 
but I '11 tell you the very first thing in the morning, 
Mr. Tiger," said the little, wee boy very politely. 
Then he went on playing the pretty little song 
on his reed pipe. 

When he reached home that evening he called, 

"Oh, Auntie, may I please 
ask you a question?" 

"Well, and what is it?" 
snapped his auntie. 

" If a big, big Tiger should 
come out of the jungle and 
ask, 'Shall I eat you or the sheep?' 
which should I tell him to eat?" 

"Why, you, of course," snapped 
his auntie. 

So next morning, when the big, 
big Tiger came out of the jungle and 
said, " Well, little boy, shall I eat you or 

all of your 
sheep?' the 
little, wee boy 
very polite- 
ly, "Me, of 

course, Mr. Tiger." But the little, wee boy did 
not play any pretty little song on his reed pipe. 


Then the big, big Tiger looked at the little, 
wee boy, and he coughed, and he switched his 
tail; then he looked away up to the tiptop of 
the tree, then he looked away off into the jungle, 
but he did not seem in a very great hurry to 
eat the little, wee boy. 

'If you please, Mr. Tiger, if you must eat me 
I wish you'd do it right away, for it is n't any fun 
to wait," said the little, wee boy very politely. 

'You're a very polite little boy," said the 
Tiger, "and I don't like to eat you at all, but I 
must live. Is there anything I can do for you 
after I eat you?" 

" Yes," said the little, wee boy. "After you 've 
eaten me and picked all my bones very clean, will 
you lay them in a nice, tidy pile at the foot of 
this tree, and will you take my little toe bone and 
tie it up in the very tiptop of the tree?' 

"Certainly I will," said the Tiger, and he did, 
just so. 

When the winds blew, the little toe bone rocked 
and swung on the topmost branch, and the little 
white bones lay in a nice, tidy pile at the foot of 
the tree. 

One night five robbers stopped there to divide 
the money they had stolen. They sat under the 
tree, and began to count out the gold and silver 



/ ! -- 





wj V 


into five piles. Then the little toe bone in the 
tiptop of the tree began to rock and swing harder 
than ever. The tree flung its branches about, 
and the wind whistled by. Black clouds covered 
the stars, and the rain came down in torrents. 
The lightning flashed, the thunder roared, and 
right in the worst of the storm the little toe bone 
dropped from the tree right on top of the chief 
robber's head. 

"Oh, help!" he cried. "The sky is falling on 
us to punish us! Let us run! Let us run!" 

Away they ran* through the jungle, leaving all 
their silver and gold in piles under the trees. 

Then the storm stopped, and the stars shone 
again on a wonderful sight. The little toe bone 
had rolled from off the robber's head right upon 
the tidy pile of little white bones, and they had 
turned into the little boy once more, and there 
he sat, playing a pretty song on his reed pipe. 

When clay came he found clean stones, while 
and red, blue and green, and he dug a hole in the 
ground like a great cup, and lined it with the 
stones. The white stones were at the bottom, and 
the blue and red and green stones were about the 
top, like a border. Then he played on his reed 
pipe, very sweetly, and all the mother animals 
from the jungle came to him to feed him, just as 
they would their own little ones. 

There were mother tigers and mother leopards, 
mother lions, and even mother deer. When he 
had had enough he put the rest of their milk in 
the little pool he had made of the stones. Every 
morning they came out of the jungle to feed him. 
He drank all he wished, and the rest of the warm, 
white milk he put in his pretty pool. Then all 
day long he sat under the tree and played on his 
pipe. All the sick and hungry animals came to 
him and he let them drink from his pool, and they 
always went away well and happy. 


DEVAPALA was the servant of a rich 
merchant in India. No one ever heard 
of a better servant than he, so kind was 
Devapala, and so faithful. His work was to take 
his master's cows to graze by day, and to milk, 
feed, and care for them evening and morning. 

Most of the year this part of India was hot 
and dry; there were few trees to shade one from 
the burning sun. But when the rainy season 
came all this was changed. There were drops 
of rain in the sky, and the lightnings filled the 
heaven; the troops of long-tailed peacocks danced 
with joy; streams flowed where dust had been 
before, and the rumbling clouds, like great water 
jars, poured down the rain. 

Devapala had taken his cows to graze and was 
returning home. On his way he came to a river 



swollen by the flood of rushing water and very 
hard to ford. On the other side of the river he 
saw floating an image of Jina. Now no good 
Hindu would let an image of Jina be tossed about 
in the rushing river, so Devapala waded over, 
pulled the image to land, and set it up under a 
pipal tree. Then as he went back he made a vow 
that he would not eat again until after he had 
worshiped the image. But it went right on rain- 
ing, oh, ever so hard, - - so hard Devapala could 
not ford the river to worship the Jina. It never 
had rained so hard before. The great water jars in 
the sky were certainly turned upside down, and for 
seven days it did not stop. Seven days is a long 
time to wait for one's breakfast, but Devapala 
did not forget his vow. He would not eat one 
crumb until he had worshiped the image of Jina. 


On the seventh day the rain stopped at last. 
The sun shone out, and the water from the wet 
earth ran off down to the swollen river. 

At last Devapala could ford the river and go 
to the pipal tree, where the image was yet stand- 
ing. He worshiped the good Jina as he had 
promised, and to his surprise the image spoke 
to him. 

"O Devapala," it seemed to say, "I am much 
pleased with such faithfulness. Go to sleep, and 
see what I shall do to repay you." 

So Devapala lay down and slept by the side 
of the image of Jina. 

Now on this very day and hour the King of the 
city died from cholera. As he had no son to be 
king in his place, the ministers said, 'We do 
not know who will be King. What can we do? 
Shall we let his elephant choose the next king?' 

They all thought that would be the easiest 
way, so they brought out the King's favorite 
elephant, put on his finest crimson and gold 
trappings, and fastened the gold and silver head- 
piece on his head. Then they took a pitcher 
filled with water, tied it to the head of the ele- 
phant, and let him go. All the ministers ran along 
to see where he would go, and all the people ran 
along, too, to see on whom the King's elephant 


All the people ran alon to sec on whom the Kit ':t!nt iconld 

spill the tenter L . 39 



r~ >! 

would spill the water. You may be sure there 

were many who tried to get in his way, and all 
tried to be very near him so that if the water 
spilled it might fall on them. What a pushing 
and jamming there was, with people swarming 
before and beside! But the grand old elephant 
held his gold-trimmed head high, and not one drop 
of water did he spill. 

When the pushing crowd became too thick, 
up went his trunk, and oh, such a trumpeting! 
The people scattered then, and kept out of his 
way, for they saw he wanted no one of them. He 
walked on and on until he came to the pipal tree 
by the river. There, by the image of the good 
Jina, lay Devapala, fast asleep. The elephant 
bent his head, and poured all the water from the 
pitcher over the sleeping servant. 

The ministers were glad, and the people all 
shouted, ' ' Hurrah ! Here is our King ! Hurrah ! ' ' 

The ministers took the splendid garments they 
had brought and dressed Devapala in them, put 
him on the King's own elephant, and brought him 
to the palace a King! 

Now the merchant was very cross indeed to 
lose such a good servant, and as he walked by 
that same river he came upon the old clothes 
Devapala had been wearing before the elephant 




found him. They were very differ- 
ent indeed from the clothes the King 
was now wearing. Really, they were 
dreadfully dirty and worn, for the 
merchant had given Devapala only 
rags to wear. 

" Why should he become King?" 
said the merchant. ' He was a very 
good cowherd, and I wanted him for 
that. I think I '11 just show the 
people whom they have on their 

So he took the dirty, ragged 
clc thing and at night he nailed it 
up en the gate of the palace and 
wrote above it, in large letters, 
Here are the real clothes of your 

In the morning as the people came flocking past 
the palace gate they saw the filthy rags there and 
read the writing above them. 

"Is it possible," they said to one another, 
"that our King were such dirty things as those?" 
"How disgusting! I wonder if the elephant 
did n't make seme mistake." 

"Are elephants really so wonderful after all, 
do you think?" 



When the King heard what the people were 
saying, and saw how they felt, he was very sad. 
But when he went to worship the Jina (as he did 
each morning before breakfast), it said to him, 
"Go home, and make an elephant of clay. Set it 
up before the gate of the palace where all can see 
it. Then mount it, just as though it were alive. 
Feed it whole grain as you would a real elephant. 
Do as I tell you, and you need not fear." 

So Devapala the King went home and did just 
as the Jina told him to do. He made a mighty 
elephant of clay, and placed it before the palace 
gate. Then he mounted it and fed it whole grain, 
as though it were alive. All the people crowded 
around to see what Devapala the King would 
do with his clay elephant. 

"Oh, look," they cried, "he is feeding his clay 
elephant whole grain!" 

"Why, it's eating it!" 

"See! It is walking!" 

"It surely is alive!" 

Then the elephant raised his trunk, and trum- 
peted as no elephant ever had trumpeted before. 

The people all fell on their knees and cried, 
"He is our King, our wonderful King! We will 
love him and serve him always." 

Right by the pipal tree, close by the swollen 
river, Devapala the King built a beautiful temple, 
and in it set up the very image of the Jina which 
he had found. And every morning and every 
evening he went to it, bearing sweet-smelling 
things -- camphor, sandalwood, and fragrant 



/ v -. 



ONCE upon a time a soldier died, leaving his 
wife and one boy. They were dreadfully 
poor; in fact, they had nothing whatever 
in the house to eat. So the boy said to his mother, 
"Give me four shillings, and I'll go out in the 
world to seek my fortune." 

"My boy," said his mother, "how can I give 
you four shillings when I have n't even a penny?" 

"Let's look in the pockets of father's old 
coat," said the boy. "Perhaps we'll find some- 
thing there." 

They did look, and sure enough, there were 
six shillings, really more than the boy needed to 
take with him while seeking his fortune. 

"Here, mother, you take two shillings. You 
can live on that until I return. The others will 
help me win my fortune." 

Off he went, gayly jingling the four shillings 


in his pocket and looking sharply about on all 
sides to see where he could find his fortune. 

Soon he came upon a huge tigress lying under 
a tree, licking her great paw and groaning so fear- 
fully that even the leaves on the trees shook. 

' Well, I know that she is no fortune," he said, 
'but I suppose I ought to help her, anyway. 
Mistress Tiger, can I do anything for you?" 

"Oh, if you would only pull this thorn out of 
my paw," moaned the tigress, and the very tree 
shook with her voice. 

;< Please put your other paws a little farther 
away, for your claws are very sharp, and I '11 
try to draw it out." 

So she moved her other paws as far away as 
she could, and he pulled and tugged, and finally 
drew out the thorn. 

As a reward for his kindness she gave him a 
small box, but told him not to open it until he 
had gone nine miles. 

He took the little box in his hand, and gayly 
started off to seek his fortune. At the end of the 
first few miles he found the box growing heavier 
and larger, in fact, by the time he reached the 
seventh mile it was so heavy he could scarcely 
carry it. At the eighth mile he cried, "That box 
is too heavy to carry another mile, or another 


foot even! I don't care what is in it!" And he 
threw it on the ground so hard that it was broken. 

Just then out of the crack in the small box 
there crawled a little old man only a foot high, 
with a beard a foot and a half long trailing on the 
ground under his feet and behind him. He be- 
gan to stamp and scold, but the Soldier's Son 
only laughed. 

"Well, you are the heaviest man for your size 
on this side of the sea! What is your name?" 

"Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man," cried the little old 
man, still stamping and scolding. "And why did 
you throw me down that way? Don't you know 
I am going to be your gentle, patient, faithful 
servant as long as you need me?" 

"Well, gentle, patient, faithful Kittle-Little- 
Buzz-Man, can you get me something to eat? 


For truly I am starving. 
Hi re are four shillings to 
pay for it." 

The little man, still 
stamping and scolding, 
snatched the money, and, 
whiz! boom! buz/! off he 
flew, like a big dragon 11 y. 
He flew to a candy store 
in the village. There he 
stood, this little foot-high 
man with his foot-and-a- 
half beard trailing under 
his feet and behind him, 
and he roared in a mighty 
voice, "Ho! ho! ho! Mr. 
Candy Maker, give me 
some of your very finest 

Now he happened to stand right behind a pile 
of boxes, so the Candy Maker could not see him 
at all. All around the room, and out the window, 
and down the street looked the Candy Maker. 

'Dear me, I thought I heard some one speak," 
said he. 

At that, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man was in a great 
rage. He flew at the Candy Maker, pinching 



and biting his legs, and screaming, "Of course 
you heard some one speak! It's I, Kittle-Little- 
Buzz-Man, the gentle, patient, faithful servant 
of the Soldier's Son. I want one hundred pounds 
of candy, wrapped up in a neat package, and I 've 
money to pay for it here in my pocket." As he 
stamped and scolded, he loudly rattled the four 
shillings in his pocket. 

The Candy Maker very obligingly wrapped up 
the hundred pounds of candy in a neat package 
and handed it to the little man, when, whiz! 
boom ! buzz ! away he flew, like a dragon fly, with 
the four shillings still in his pocket. 

Straight he flew to a Baker's. There he stood, 
this foot-high man, with his foot-and-a-half beard 
trailing under his feet and behind him, and roared 
in a mighty voice, "Ho! ho! ho! Mr. Baker, give 
me some of your finest cakes." 

Now he happened to stand right behind a 
barrel of flour, so the Baker could not see him 
at all. All around the room, and out the window, 
and down the street looked the Baker. 


"Dear me, I thought I heard some one speak," 
said he. 

At that, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man was in a 
grand rage. He flew at the Baker, pinching and 
biting his legs, and screaming, "Of course you 
heard some one speak. It's I, Kittle-Little-Buzz- 
Man, the gentle, patient, faithful servant of the 
Soldier's Son. I want one hundred cakes wrapped 
up in a neat package, and I Ve money to pay for 
them here in my pocket." As he stamped and 
scolded, he loudly rattled the four shillings in his 

The Baker very obligingly wrapped up the 
one hundred cakes in a neat package and handed 
it to the little man, when, whiz! boom! buzz! 
away he flew like a dragon fly, with the four 
shillings still in his pocket. 

The Soldier's Son was just wondering what 
had become of his foot-tall, gentle, patient, faith- 
ful servant, when, whiz! boom! buzz! the little 
fellow landed plump at his feet, with his two 
huge packages, and still stamping and scolding. 


"Now I do hope I've brought you enough! 
You men have such terrible appetites!" 

"Oh, thank you, I think it will be enough, 
and more too," laughed the Soldier's Son, taking 
a handful of candy and two cakes. The little man 
snatched all the rest, and gobble! gobble! gobble! 
they were all gone in a jiffy. 

Now the Soldier's Son and Kittle-Little-Buzz- 
Man, his gentle, patient, faithful servant, still 
stamping and scolding, a foot-high man with 
his foot-and-a-half beard trailing under his feet 
and behind him, traveled far until they came to 
the city of the King. 

This King had a daughter, the Princess Blos- 
som, who was very beautiful, and so small that 
she weighed only as much as five rosebuds - 
no more. The Soldier's Son caught a glimpse of 
her walking in her garden of roses, and at once 
hurried to his foot-high servant, crying, "O Kittle- 
Little-Buzz-Man, my gentle, patient, faithful 
servant, carry me at once to the Princess Blossom. 
I must have her to share my fortune with me." 

"Your fortune? And what is it?" scolded the 
little man, stamping his feet and jingling the 
four shillings that were still safe in his pocket. 

But just the same he took him to the Princess, 
where she sat in her garden of roses. So pleased 



7V/fy sf/ o^" together to sec the world 

were they with each other that they talked and 
talked. They talked until it was night, and then 
they talked until it was day again. Then they 
decided that they could never get through talking 
with each other, so they just set off together to 
see the world. 

"Now, Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man, my gentle, 
patient, faithful servant," said the Soldier's Son, 
"since my fortune is made already, I won't need 
you any more, so you may go back to the tigress." 

" Pooh ! " said the little man, stamping. " You 
think you won't want me. But here's your four 
shillings; I saved them for you, and that's more 
than you could ever do. You'd better take this 
hair from my beard and tie it around your ankle, 
and when you want me just burn it in the fire and 
I'll come at once." 

Then, whiz! boom! buzz! off he went like a 
big dragon fly, and the two young people wandered 
on, talking and talking and talking. 

Now when they had gone, oh, ever so far, they 
lost their way in a wood, where a Brahman found 
them, and said, 'You two poor children, come 
with me to my home and I'll feed and care 
for you." So, very happily, they went to the 
Brahman's house with him. 

When they reached the house the Brahman 



gave them a bunch of keys, saying, "Now just 
go in and cook anything you want. Open all the 
cupboards except the one with the golden key. 
While you are doing this I'll go and find some 
wood for a fire." 

They went in and opened all the cupboards 
(they were all full of gold and jewels) and also 
the one with the golden key, but that was full of 
skulls and dead men's bones. 

"Oh, horrors!" cried the Soldier's Son. "We 
are lost! This must be the house of a Vampire, 
and not a Brahman at all." 

Just at that moment they heard him at the 
door, gnashing his teeth and ready to eat them 





alive. Quick as a flash the Princess snatched the 
magic hair from the ankle of the Soldier's Son and 
held it in the fire. 

Whiz! boom! buzz! some one came flying 
through the air like a great dragon fly. The 
Vampire knew well enough who it was, and had 
just time enough to turn into a driving rain, hoping 
to drown Kittle-Little-Buzz-Man, but he changed 
into a fierce wind, which drove away the rain. 
Then the Vampire became a dove, and dashed 
away, but that same second the little man be- 
came a hawk and was after the dove. 

The dove changed into a rose, and fell into the 
King's lap. At once the hawk, as an old musician, 
was playing to the King so sweetly that the King 
said, "What reward will you take for such beau- 
tiful music? I will give you anything I possess." 

"O King, pray give me the rose that lies in 
your lap," said the old musician. 

As the King handed him the rose the petals 
fell in a shower. Quick as thought, he snatched 
them from the ground, all but one, which changed 
into a mouse and scampered away. Then the 


musician changed into a cat, dashed alter, and 
caught and gobbled up the mouse in a twinkling. 

Then, whiz! boom! buzz! back he was beside 
the Princess Blossom and the Soldier's Son, who 
were trembling with fear as they awaited the end 
of this terrible battle. Stamping and scolding, 
he stood before them, this foot-high man, with 
his foot-and-a-half beard trailing under his feet 
and behind him, and said, "Now you go home, 
you two silly children. You need a mother to 
take care of you, for you do not know enough 
to take care of yourselves." 

So he filled their arms and pockets full of gold 
and jewels, and whizzed them home to where the 
mother of the Soldier's Son had been waiting for 
him, and her two shillings were almost spent. 

She was glad enough to see them, and loved 
the beautiful, delicate Princess Blossom as though 
she were her own daughter. So they all lived 
happily after that, and always had plenty of 
shillings jingling in their pockets. 


poor Plowman used to work in the 
fields near a temple. He had no family or 
friends, yet he never seemed unhappy. 
He was constantly listening, as though he heard 
music that was unknown to others. The wind in 
the trees, the rain on the leaves, the droning of the 
insects, and the rustling of the grass formed his 
choir and orchestra. He knew and loved all the 
sounds about him, so he was never lonely or sad. 
He was poor; so poor, indeed, that he never 
had anything but a handful of boiled rice for his 
dinner, but so generous was he that he always 
laid a part of his scanty food on the temple steps, 
that no wanderer need leave there hungry. 

One day he almost forgot to divide his poor 
little handful of rice, and he had a bit all but in 
his mouth before he remembered. He sprang up 



and started to the temple steps, but when he came 
near he was terrified to see a huge lion standing 
there. He hesitated for a second, then said to 
himself, "Well, if I must die in a lion's mouth, 
so I die. But at least I will not forget my vow 
to share my dinner with those who are poorer 
than I." So he walked boldly toward the temple 
steps, and as he came near, the lion backed away 
and disappeared. 

He put half of his ball of rice on the temple 
step and had the other half to his lips when a 
hermit stood before him, holding out a beseeching 


hand. The Plowman hastily divided what he 
had with the hermit, who suddenly disappeared, 
just as had the lion. 

He had raised the little remaining rice to his 
lips when an old man appeared. The rice he had 
left was not enough to divide, so the Plowman 
handed it all to him. In a moment the old man 
was gone, but in his place stood a Jina. Now 
the Plowman was distressed that he had no more 
rice to offer to the Jina, but he explained that he 
had given it all away and promised that he would 
bring some the next day. 

"Oh, Plowman," the Jina replied, "I did not 
come to share your rice, but to grant you a wish. 
Think well, then ask for whatever you most 
desire, for anything that you wish is yours." 

The Plowman thought for a while, and then 
said, "What I really wish for most is to be able 
to play upon a harp some of the music I hear 
every day around me in the fields and the forest." 

"That is a wise and noble choice," said the 
Jina, "and you shall have your wish. Come 
with me." 

The Plowman swung his plow over his shoulder 
and walked along with the Jina. After a time 
they came to a splendid palace, the palace of a 
great King. 



The poor Plowman was abashed, and said, 
"I cannot go to the palace of a great King. I am 
but a poor Plowman. My place is in the fields." 

"You must go where I bid you," said the 
Jina, and he led him into the palace, and up to 
a seat on a high platform. 

'What is all this magnificence, and why are 

all these Kings and Princes seated here?" asked 
the Plowman. 

"This is a Svayamvara," answered the Jina. 
"Each one of these Kings and Princes is here to 
try for the hand of the beautiful Princess. She 
will show which one she chooses by throwing a 
wreath of flowers about his neck. These foolish 
Kings are dressed in all their gorgeous robes 
because they think she w r ill choose their gold and 
their jewels." 

"But I don't belong here. Let me go away," 
urged the Plowman. 

'Better stay, and here is your plow just 
keep that handy," said the Jina. 

Presently the Princess came in, and she was 
more beautiful than music. The Plowman felt 
sure that she would understand the voices he 
heard in the fields, and love them, too. 

Her father handed a harp to each King and 
Prince. He paused before the Plowman, and 


looked curiously at him, but the Princess stepped 
up quickly and said, "Yes, give him a harp, too, 
for I feel sure that he can play." 

The King then made this announcement: 
"Hear, all Princes and Kings! The Princess has 
made a vow that if any man can excel her in 
playing the harp, that man shall be her husband." 

The first Prince stepped forward, smiling and 
conceited. He played so soothingly that a wild 
elephant was quieted, and became tame from 
that moment. 

Then the second one tried. He played a joy- 
ous song. The sky became more blue, the sun 
shone more brightly, and a barren tree by the 
palace bore new leaves. 

The music of the third was so sweet that even 
the timid deer from the forest came near. 

' Stupid creatures ! "' cried the Princess. " C an't 
you play better than that?" Then she took a 
harp and played a soothing melody, when lo! the 
wild elephant knelt down to allow the driver to 
mount his head. Then she played a joyous song, 
and the sky became like sapphire, the sun dazzled 
them with its brightness, and the barren tree by 
the palace burst into bloom. Next she played 
so sweetly that the timid deer from the fount 
came up and lay down by the palace gate. 

Then all the Kings and Princes were cast down, 
for they saw that she could play far more wonder- 
fully than they. Presently, she came to the 
Plowman, and asked him to play. He was about 
to refuse, but the Jina whispered to him, ''Share 
with her the music you hear in the fields and the 
forest. It would be selfish to refuse." 

So the Plowman took up the harp, and seemed 
to be listening to the distant music he so loved. 
His fingers stole over the strings, drawing out 
music such as no one had ever heard before. One 
by one the Princes bowed their heads, and slept. 
Then down from their proud heads slipped the 
golden, jeweled crowns. Ropes of rubies and 
emeralds loosed themselves from royal necks. 
All this glittering mass came to the feet of the 
Plowman, drawn by the power of his music. 



The Princess was delighted, and threw over his 
neck the garland of flowers, showing her choice. 

Then the Kings and Princes woke up. 
'What! Has she chosen that man!' they 
exclaimed. "He is not a King, or even a Prince. 
He is only a Plowman! See his plow! We will 
take her anyway!" 

They dashed toward her, and were going to 
take her and carry her off. But she clung to the 
Plowman, and cried, "Save me from those horrid, 
stupid men ! Their music makes me ill. I should 
die if I had to listen to it always." 

So the Plowman stood up and seized his plow. 
One King drove his elephant at him, to trample 
down, but he swung the good plow about 




him, and crash! it went through the elephant's 
head. A second King drove at him with a chariot 
and six horses. The good plow swung quickly 
around, cut open the heads of the horses, and 
smashed the chariot. By that time there was no 
one near him save the Princess. The Kings and 
Princes, from afar, too far for the plow to touch, 
knelt down and worshiped him. 

"O Most Mighty One! to thee belongs the 
beautiful Princess. Thou art the only King, and 
we are the dust beneath thy feet," they said, then 
hastened away, not even waiting for their crowns 
and necklaces. 

The Princess and the Plowman were married, 
and he taught her to hear the wonderful music 
of the fields and the forest, and each day he put 
a part of his food on the temple steps, that no 
wanderer need leave there hungry. 



A,L that I tell you of Mahendra, the Prince 
of India, happened many years ago, and 
far, far away, but, believe me, it as surely 
happened as though it were but yesterday, and 
on this very spot. 

The rains were over, and the fields were again 
green and lovely, when Mahendra saw a picture 
of a girl so beautiful that he wished to make her 
his wife. 

He went boldly to the kingdom of her father 
and asked him for his beautiful daughter. The 
King sighed and said, "My daughter, the Princess 
Jani, will not marry any man unless he can bring 
the fairy Moonbeam to dance at her wedding." 

Mahendra replied, "Then I go to find the fairy 
Moonbeam, and ask her to come to dance at 
our wedding, for I am determined to marry the 
Princess Jani. 



, dO flOl f M' 1 1 ' ( )li i 7 it' 



Off he started on the long journey to the home 
of the Gnome King, where he knew that the fairy 
Moonbeam lived. After many days of traveling 
he came, at last, to the great, white marble gates 
of the palace. He called and rapped, and tried 
to open the gates, but received no answer. 

At last a little old man called to him, " O Prince, 
do not try to enter those gates. No mortal 
ever has. Come here to my cottage, and rest." 

The old man had a pleasant, honest face, so 
Prince Mahendra went into the cottage with him. 
As they were talking, the Prince noticed a beauti- 
ful silver top set with pearls lying on a table. He 
picked it up and looked at it. 'Where have I 
seen that top before?" he asked. 

"That top was given to me by a little boy, 
many years ago," answered the old man. "He 
saw me lying by the roadside, sick and alone, 
and asked those with him to stop and care for 
me, but they refused to do so, and rode on. The 
little boy turned and tossed me this top, and called, 
'Here, take this. It will make you well/ And 
do you know, the moment the top touched me 
I became well, and have never been sick since." 

"And do you know," said Mahendra, "I was 
that little boy. I remember it all now. And 
this is a magic top. All you have to do is to give 


it to some one as you ask him to do what you 
wish, and what you ask for comes at once. It is 
the magic of the top, and no one can refuse. See, 
I give it to you and say, 'Please bring me the 
fairy Moonbeam,' and you will do it." 

"Oh, I really can't get- ' began the old man, 
but before the sentence was finished he was there, 
holding the fairy by the hand. Such a dainty, 
beautiful fairy! No wonder her name was Moon- 
beam, and all the world had heard of her. 

"Make haste and tell me what you wish me 
to do," she said, "for if the Gnome King finds 
that I am gone he may come and turn us all to 
stones, just as he has so many others." 

Just then there was a roar like a tempest. 
The marble gates swung open, and the Gnome 


King himself came bouncing out. His clothes 
were made of woven gold, and strings of pearls 
and precious stones were tangled all over him. 
On his misshapen head he had a gorgeous crown 
that only made still more hideous the ugly face 
beneath it. 

"Be a stone, and lie where you stand! Be 
a stone, and lie where you stand!" he cried to 
the old man and to Mahendra, and they were 
cold blocks of stone before his words were gone. 

Then he turned to the fairy and said, "Come 
with me, my lovely Moonbeam; I cannot live 
one hour without you. Come back into the palace 
with me at once." 

The poor fairy Moonbeam was frightened to 
see what had happened. Just then she noticed 
the silver top lying where the old man had dropped 
it when he turned to stone. Of course she knew 
how to use it, for had n't she been brought there 
by its magic? She picked it up and gave it to 
the Gnome King, saying, as she did so, "Here 
is a gift for you, and by its power be you and yours 
turned to smoke and ashes forever, and your 
victims be made to live again." 

It was the magic of the top, and no one could 
withstand it. As the stones sprang into life 
again the Gnome King crumbled and fell before 


> -^TO 

* r\ 

the old man and Mahendra like dry ashes. The 
marble gates slipped down and disappeared as 
they fell. Then, like a dream carved in marble 
and gold, the whole dazzling palace stood revealed. 
Slowly it drifted away, like a cloud of white 
smoke, touched with gold, and was lost among 
the sunset clouds. Where it had stood a short 
time before lay the level plain, white with dust 
and ashes. 

When Mahendra looked around for the fairy- 
Moonbeam he saw in her place a most beautiful 
girl, the girl of the picture. 

''Are you the beautiful Jam?" he asked. 

''Yes, I am; but for years I have been a slave 
to that ugly Gnome King, and had to obey him. 
I had begun to think no one would ever save 
me from him. Even you could not have saved 
me if it had not been for this magic top. Now 
let us go home to my father's kingdom, where we 
will be married, and let us take with us, as our 
most precious possession always, this magic top." 


as in ale 
as in senate 
as in care 
as in m 
as in final 
as in arm 
as in ask 
as in sofa 
as in eve 
as in create 
as in Snd 
as in nov#l 
as in cinder 
as in Ice 
as in ill 
as in old 
as in 6bey 
as in lord 
as in 6dd 

o , as in connect 

o as in soft 

oo as in food 

06 as in foot 

ou as in thou 

th as in this 

u as in pQre 

u as in unite 

ft as in urn 

u as in study 

u as in circus 

rj (like ng) : for n before the 

sound k or hard g as in 

N indicates the nasal tone, as 

in French, of the preceding 

tu for tu as in nature 

- ' > ^ 

' for voice glide as in par'd'n 



[In this vocabulary the definitions eover only those meanings 
which apply in tin- stories in which the words appear. The di;u-rr 
marks used to indicate pronunciation agree with the la' '-.'ion 

of U'ei' ter's New [ntemational I )ictionary.J 

abashed ( d basht')- Confused or embarrassed. 

Aramacobha u ra ma co'lx/j. Wonderful Garden of Dreams. 

bamboo (bam boo'). A grass which has a hollow stem and which 
sometimes grows to be one hundred twenty feet high; found in 
the lands near the equator. 

barren (bar'^n). Without leaves or fruit. 

bellow <b<.To). To make a loud noise; to roar. 

Bonga (borj'g(i). A supernatural being inhabiting trees, waterfalls, 
and fountains. 

Brahman (.bra'nwn). A man of highest caste or rank in India. 

camphor (kam'fcr). The fragrant wood from the camphor tree. 

cholera (kol'er d). A disc 

cobra (ko'brd). A very poisonous snake found in the warm parts of 


coil (koil). To wind about, to encircle, 
cunning (kun'ing). Skill. 

Devapala (de va pa'l-i). 

dismount (dls mount'). To get down from an animal, such as a horse 

or camel. 
drone (dron). To make a low humming sound. 

emerald (em'er aid). A rieli green jewel, one () f the precious stones. 

ford (f6rd). To cross a body of water at a place where it is shallow 

enough to wade. 
fount (fount). A fountain. 


gnash (nash). To grind or strike together. 
gnome (nom). An elk or fairy. 

hermit (hur'mit). A person who lives alone far away from everybody 

'Q\ Jani (ja'ne). 

Jina (Ji'nd). A being worshiped by the Hindus. 

leopard (lep'erd). A large spotted cat found wild in southern Asia. 

Mahendra (ma hen'dra). 

mango (man 'go). A very large tree which grows in the warm parts 

of Asia. 

melody (mel'6 di). A sweet arrangement of sounds. 
ministers (min'is terz). The men who manage the affairs of a king. 
mortal (mor'tol). A human being. 

pipal (pe'pal). The sacred fig tree of India. 
ruby (roo'bi). A precious stone, red in color. 

sandal wood (san'dal wood'). The fragrant yellowish wood from an 

East Indian tree. 

sapphire (saf'ir). A bright blue jewel, one of the precious stones. 
shilling (shil'ing). A silver coin equal to about twenty-four cents in 

the United States. 

Svayamvara (sva'am va'rd). The ceremony of choosing a husband. 
sweetmeat (swet'met'). Fruit cooked with sugar in such a way that 

it can be kept for a long time. 
switch (swich). To swing quickly. 

tempest (tem'pest). A furious storm. 

trappings (trap'ingz). Decorations for an animal, such as a horse 
or elephant. 

Vampire (vam'pir). A person who lives upon others. 
vow (vou). A solemn promise. 

writhe (nth). To twist and turn. 
Yogi (yo'ge). An Indian wizard. 




INDIA is a land of mysteries. Shut off from the rest 
of the world by a mountain wall towering in some 
places live miles high, it has developed races and 
customs different from those of any other land. The- life 
and thought of some of these people- arc rdlected to an 
unusual decree in the stories in this book, stories of magic 
though they arc. And while in the reading it is of the 
first importance that the child obtain the fullest appreciation 
of the story as a story, at the same time it should be made 
clear that the characters, the situations, and the "atmos- 
1 ihcre" are not altogether those of mythland but are actually 
to a large extent those of India itself. The following 
suggestions will serve to show how this idea may be brought 


India is shaped like a huge kite with its lower point almost 
as far south as the Panama Canal, and its upper edges as 
far north as Evansville, Indiana, a distance of about 1,900 
miles. If its eastern corner touched Charleston, South 
Carolina, it would reach west as far as the eastern line of 

From references in the various stories to the heat, or to 
a spring, or a wood, or a storm ("Wonderful Ciarden of 
Dreams," p. 15; "Magic Fiddle," p. 25; "Little Toe Bone," 
pp. 33 and 35; "Devapala," p. 38; etc.), it will be easy to 
bring out the varying climate and physical character of 


this great country: the cool, elevated stretches along the 
slopes of the Himalayas; the rich, fertile valleys of the 
Indus and Ganges, with their seasons of excessive, parching 
heat and torrential rains; and the coast regions -- similar 
to all coast regions -- with their more humid, less variable 

In nearly every story there is mentioned some animal, 
bird, tree, or plant which, if attention is called to it, to 
its appearance, to the places where it lives or grows, and 
to other characteristics, will afford a valuable nature lesson. 

It should be remembered that the cow in India is not the 
animal that we know by that name, but a humped variety; 
and that the elephant and camel are as commonly seen 
in some parts of India as is the horse in the United States. 

The trees of India are beautiful and interesting and many 
of them are almost unknown elsewhere. The palm (p. 15) 
is the Hindu's greatest friend. The wood is valuable; the 
leaves are used to thatch houses and for fuel, and from 
them are made baskets, cords, fans, and numberless other 
articles; the fruit supplies food, and the sap is used for 
"toddy" or wine. The Hindus believe the palm lives for 
a thousand years. 

The mango (p. 15) is famed for the loveliness of its flowers 
and for its delicious fruit. In The Voyages of the Sunbeam, 
Lady Brassey says: "The mango is certainly the king of 
fruits. Its flavor is a combination of the apricot and 

Bamboo (p. 25) is really the name of a tribe of grasses, the 
largest species of which reaches a height of one hundred 
twenty feet. Many varieties bloom annually, others at 
intervals of sometimes many years. All the parts and 

products of the bamboo arc utilized in oriental countries. 
The soft shoots an- served like asparagus, <>r arc salted, 
pickled, candied, or preserved in sugar. The Hindus mix 
the :,( eds with honey and roast them. The fleshy fruit 
of one speeies is baked and eaten. The stem serves end' 
purposes. From it are made 1 water buckets, bottles, and 
cooking vessels. Houses are built from it. It is used in 
shipping and fishing, for water pipes, and in making all 
kinds of agricultural and domestic implements. The outer 
cuticle cut into thin strips is woven into baskets and 
furniture. It has been called "the most wonderful and 
most beautiful production of the tr< >i >ies. and one of nature's 
most valuable gifts to uncivilized man." 

The pipal (p. 38) is the sacred fig tree of India. It 
resembles our sycamore. 

The children should keep a list of these trees as they come 
to them, and compare them with our own fruit and shade 
trees, in si/c, appearance, and usefulness. Similar lists of 
birds and wild animals will be instructive. 



Although the features of the Hindus are much like those 
of Europeans, their skin varies in color from the lightest 
brown to jet black. People of the lower classes generally 
are darker than those of high class, though toward the south 
of India, near Madras, the darker type prevails. Many 
Hindus wash the face, arms, and feet in saffron water to 
give them a yellow color. They paint the outer edge of 
the eyelid with lampblack and redden the tips of the fingers 
and nails with henna. 

From the clothing alone three things can be told about 
a native of India: the section where he lives, his religion, 
and his social standing. Thus, the Hindu is not only dis- 
tinguished from the Mohammedan, Sikh, and Parsee, but, 
to some extent, his caste is proclaimed as well. Certain 
garments, however, are worn by all Hindus, throughout 
India. The average Hindu has no expensive tailor's bill, 
for his apparel consists largely of long strips of cloth wound 
about the body. 

The dhoti, the most distinctive Hindu garment, is worn 
by both men and women. It is a piece of cotton cloth 
several yards long and about a yard wide, and is wrapped 
about the hips a number of times with the end tucked in. 
No buttons, pins, or strings are used. With this, men 
usually wear a similar piece of cloth, the chaddar, thrown 
across the shoulders and drawn about the waist. The 
kurta, a sort of shirt, and the angharka, a short coat, also 
may be worn. 

The head covering for men is either a cap or a turban, 
the latter a piece of cloth from six to eight inches wide and 
from ten to fifty yards long. It is wound about the head 


in various fashions according to the station of the wearer. 
A line turban is an object of much pride. Women wear the 
orhna, or veil, over their heads. 

Sandals or decorated slippers are worn l>y men, but 
women frequently wear neither shoes nor stockings. Jewelry 
of all kinds is worn by both men and women. 

Women sometimes wear the kitrtd, and sometimes a short 
bodice fastened with strings at the back. In Rajputana 
a full skirt hanging to the knees or a little below is worn. 
In other places instead of the skirt women wear the sari, 
a long piece of cotton or silk, half of which is draped around 
the waist and lianas to the feet in folds, while the remainder 
passes over the head and down the left shoulder. 

The well-to-do farmer has his court yard and, with the 
exception of a shed for his cattle and implements, his entire 
building is divided into living and store rooms. Most of 
the houses are simple, with but one or, it may be, two rooms, 
and n veranda. They arc usually dean. A rucle stone mill 
occupies one corner of the dwelling, the mud fireplace an- 
other, and a few brass vessels stand against the wall; a box 
for extra clothing, and the rolls of beddiii isting of grass 

mats and quilted cotton nigs, complete the furnishing. 

"The Indian village consists of two straggling lines of 
rude tile-roofed houses facing the roadway and main artery 
of traffic, with, it may be, a few side streets leading off to 
groups of still simpler structures, the homes of the low-e: 
laboring classes who form the larger part of the village' 
community. Round about the- village are grouped its pond 
or tank, wells, groves, and fields." 

At dawn the women rise' and perform ablutions, then 
clean the house. Later the men rise, bathe, cleanse their 


teeth a duty always faithfully 7 performed -- and worship 
the household god or gods which in each home, however 
humble, have a niche to themselves where they squat, each 
on his own altar. 

The man of the household makes a puja in front of the 
altar and scatters about this shrine rice and flowers. Then 
the hookas, or long pipes, are lighted, and the women serve 

The principal dishes on their menus are soup, fish, currie, 
rice, rice cakes, puddings, porridge, pulse, and fruit. After 
a meal all chew pan, a concoction made from betel nuts. 



Although class distinction or caste is today the dominating 
factor in the life of every native of India, and though even 
in the shadowy period of Indian history the Aryan people 
were divided into social grades, during the legendary ages 
caste, in the modern sense, was unknown. Partly for this 
reason and partly because a story has ever an added romance 
when it disregards conventions, in the myths in this book 
there is little observance of caste law. There is ample 


opportunity, however, for an explanation of the caste 
system if the teacher finds it desirable to give one. 

The first caste, the Brahman (p. 53), is superior to all 
others. Members of this caste may be, but are not obliged 
to be, priests. No one dares harm, and all must honor them. 
They often retire to some lonely place and devote them- 
selves to meditation and self-denial. Some become religious 
beggars and wander about from place to place living on 
alms. Even in this condition, however, the Brahman is con- 
sidered far better and holier than any one in a lower caste. 

Rulers and warriors (pp. 18, 27, 45, etc.) constitute the 
second caste; the third includes farmers and merchants 
(p- 3/)'- while the fourth, by far the largest caste, is made 
up of all laborers, servants, and handworkers (pp. 37, 48, 57). 
Each caste has many subcastes. 

A Hindu can never change his caste nor marry one who 
docs not belong to it. To cat with one of another caste is 
a terrible sin; and to touch one of a lower caste necessii 
careful bathing and prayers to be clean again. To "break" 
caste is worse than to commit a crime; those who have 
broken caste, or whose ancestors have done so, arc pariahs, 
or outcasts, despised by every one. 

The Yogi (p. 25) are a peculiar religious sect who try to 
become unconscious of all about them. They arc supposed 
to be very holy and wise. As an act of special piety they 
often retain a certain physical position for years. Some 
have held up one arm until it became wit In-red; some have 
clenched their fists until the finger nails grew through the 
back of the hand. 

Princesses of the royal blood are the only Hindu women 
allowed the privilege of choosing a husband. To the 


svayamvara, as the ceremony of choosing a husband is 
called, come all those wishing to compete for the hand of a 
princess. Usually there is a contest of some sort, such as 
singing or verse-making. The royal lady signifies her choice 
by throwing a wreath of flowers about the neck of the 
successful prince. 

The Jina (Jinn or Genii) is, according to Hindu belief, a 
being less than an angel or god, who is able to take the form 
of animals or people and who has great power for evil or for 
good over those who worship it. 

The Bonga is a supernatural being believed to inhabit 
trees, waterfalls, and fountains. Possessing magic power, 
he is supposed to be able to change the forms of others, 
though unable to change his own. 

Throughout India all serpents are thought to have 
miraculous power and are treated with great respect, although 
only the cobra or hooded serpent (p. 22) is held sacred. 
The cobra is considered a protector and harbinger of good. 
Rude representations of serpents are worshiped in every 
part of India. 


When one speaks of art in connection \vitli any Eurof)can 
country the word at once brings to niind paintin;. 1 -; of madon- 
nas and of landscapes, art galleries, and exhiliits. With 
rcncc to India "art" suggests, instead, the rich color 
and infinitely varied patterns of oriental rugs and fabrics, 
the lavish and wonderfully beautiful carvings on temples, 
palaces, and tombs, and the exquisite ornamentation of 
brass and silver ware, and of countless article's in wood and 
ivory. Bright color is characteristic of Indian clothing and 

The illustrations in this book will serve as a starting point 
for the study of Indian art. Furniture catalogue's often 
contain pictures of oriental rugs that show typical patterns, 
and the booklets issued by rug dealers frequently contain, 
be ides descriptions of weaving and dyeing pro 
colored illustrations that bring out admirably both color 
and design. 

From the illustrations in the stories children should 
observe Hindu costumes sufficiently to make other pictures 
for the text. 

Indian architecture is very different from European and 
American architecture, and while this is a subject that can- 
not be elaborated for this grade, the illustrations (pp. 21, 
44, 52, 66, for example) should be used at least to point out 
the dissimilaritv. 

v - 



These stories, like other folk tales, lend themselves 
admirably to pantomime and dramatization. The action 
in "Little Toe Bone," for instance, is very clear and simple 
and the conversation natural. "The Magic Fiddle" and 
"Devapala" are both "interesting stories for dramatization 
of a slightly more advanced character, and certain scenes 
from "Little Buzz-Man" will be entered into with unusual 
spontaneity and spirit. 



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Raw! Me \\tlly & ( 'o. 

BRUCE, James, "Scenes and Sights in the East." London: 
Smith Elder & ( 'oinpany. 

DEL MAR, Walter, "India of Today." London: Adam 
& Charles Black. 

FRERE, Mary, "Old Deccan Days." /. .>ndon: John Murray. 

MANSFIELD, B. M., "Our Little Hindu Cousin." Boston: 
L. C. Page c-" ( \nnpany. 

MOXRO, W. D., "Stories of Indian dods and H<T. 
London: George G. Harrap c~ ( 'onipany. 

OMAN-, J. C., "Indian Life." Philadelphia: (,'chhie & 

1'ixATT, Mara L., "People and Places Here and Thnv: 
India." Boston: Educational Publishing I'oinpany. 

RO\VK, A. D., "Everyday Life In India." New York: 
American '1'ra. t So( iety. 

RUSSELL, Norman, "Village Life in India" New York, 
Chicago: I-lemin^ II. Rwell Company. 

TAYLOR, Bayard, "A Visit to India, China, and Japan." 

AYri 1 }'(>rk: (i. I'. Pittihim's .S>;;.\\ 

WILSON, Richard. "The Indian Story Book." New York: 

The Maemillan ( 'oinpany. 
The article on India in the Encyclopaedia Britanniea 


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